SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antikörper (Alpha, Mu-Variante)

Since the first reported human infection with SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, many  protein subunit  vaccines have been proposed for human use. Subunit vaccines Use one or more antigens suitable for eliciting a robust immune response. However, the main concern is the effectiveness of subunit vaccines and elicited antibodies to neutralize variants of SARS-CoV-2 such as B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta) and P1 (gamma), B.1.617 ( Delta) and C.37 (Lambda). The spike protein (S) is a potential fragment for use as an antigen in vaccine development.

This protein plays a crucial role in the first step of the infection process as it binds to the ACE2 receptor (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) and after binding it enters the host cell. Immunization-induced specific antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) can block and effectively prevent viral invasion. The focus of this review is the impact of spike mutant variants of SARS-CoV2 (alpha, beta, gamma, delta and lambda) on the efficacy of subunit recombinant vaccines . Little or no significant impact on vaccine efficacy against alpha and delta variants has been reported to date. Such an impact on vaccine efficacy for beta, delta, gamma and lambda variants may be even greater compared to the alpha variant. Still, more comprehensive analyzes are needed to assess the true impact of the SARS-CoV-2 variants on vaccine efficacy.

introduction

The routine status of life in the world has been halted by the  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2  (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. It causes significant health, social and economic burdens worldwide.  SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that evolves rapidly and continuously accumulates genomic mutations as it continues to be transmitted.  Since the first reported human infection with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan in December 2019  many protein subunit  vaccines  have been presented  for human use. Nevertheless, viral genome mutations leading to new variants are a real challenge in the global fight against this pandemic.   A major focus of this review is to evaluate the impact of spike mutant variants of SARS-CoV2 (B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and B.1.1.28.1) on the efficacy of  recombinant subunit vaccines  that have been developed to elicit an immune response against the spike protein of SARS-CoV2.

methods

Independent searches of PubMed,  Web of Science  and Global  Index Medicus  were conducted by two researchers in June 2021. The search strategy consisted of a word combination covering the following areas (Covid-19 OR SARS-CoV-2) AND vaccine AND B.1.1.7 variant OR B.1.351 variant OR B.1.1.28.1 variant OR B.1.617.2 OR C.37 variant. The search had no geographic or language limitations and included all studies reporting the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against alpha, beta, gamma, delta and lambda variants. Here we narratively describe the most important results of the included studies.

The genomic features of SARS-CoV-2

The SARS-CoV-2 is a spherical virion containing a positive-strand RNA virus with a genome length of approximately 29,700  nucleotides  .  The 5ˊ end spans more than two-thirds of the genome and includes a long ORF1ab  polyprotein  that encodes 16 nonstructural proteins.  The 3ˊ end encodes four major structural proteins, namely the spike (S) protein,  nucleocapsid  (N) protein, membrane (M) protein and coat protein (E).   In addition, the virus contains six accessory proteins encoded by the genes ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8 and ORF9b.  ORF3a is a Transmembrane protein that forms ion channels in the host membrane and encodes ORF7a, a type I transmembrane protein(10). ORF8 is a protein with an N-terminal  signal sequence  for  endoplasmic reticulum transport  and ORF9b represses the IFN-I response(9).

Structure, function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein

S protein  , a  glycoprotein  , is a  homotrimer that   plays a crucial role in the first step of infection.   The  monomer  of S protein contains 1273 amino acids and has a molecular weight of approximately 140 kDa.  The primary function of S protein is to bind to the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, which after binding enters the host cell.  ACE2  is a type I integral membrane protein that functions as a carboxypeptidase and  angiotensin Cleaves II to blood pressure regulating angiotensin.

  • The virus binds to ACE2 on the host cell (lung, heart, etc.) for viral entry and subsequent pathogenesis, resulting in severe respiratory infection. Therefore, the S protein-ACE2 interaction is an easy target for vaccines.  First, it is exposed on the surface and can be directly recognized by the host’s immune system. 
  • Second, it mediates the interaction with the host cell’s binding to the ACE2 receptor, which is essential for the subsequent entry of the virus into the target cells, causing subsequent  pathogenicity  . fifteen   Finally, the homologous proteins have already been used for vaccine development against SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and have been shown to be effective.
  • The S protein consists of two functional subunits, including an N-terminal S1 subunit (Val16–Gln690). It consists of S1A, S1B, S1C and S1D domains. The latter is responsible for binding to the host cell  receptor  .
  • A C-terminal membrane-proximal S2 subunit contains the essential elements and is responsible for the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This subunit consists of four parts, including an internal  membrane fusion  peptide (FP), two 7-peptide repeats, a membrane-proximal external region, and a  transmembrane domain  (TM). 
  • The S1A domain, called the N-terminal domain (NTD), recognizes carbohydrates such as  sialic acid  , which is required for the virus to attach to the host cell surface.  The S1B domain (Arg319–Phe541), termed the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, interacts with the human ACE2 receptor. The S1 subunit can be further defined into two domains referred to as the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the C-terminal domain (CTD). The River Basin District is in the CTD. The structural parts within the S2 subunit include three long α-helices, several α-helical segments, extensive twisted β-sheets, a membrane-spanning α-helix, and an intracellular cysteine-rich segment.  Located between the S1 and S2 subunits in SARS-CoV-2, the PRRA  sequence motif  features a furin cleavage site. In the S2 subunit there is a second proteolytic cleavage site S20, upstream of the fusion peptide. These two interfaces are involved in viral entry into host cells

The S protein is a potential fragment to be used as antigen in vaccine designing including various forms of the full-length S protein, RBD domain, S1 subunit, NTD, and FP.  The RBD of S protein interacts with the ACE2 receptor on host cells directly. The RBD immunization-induced specific antibodies may block this recognition and effectively prevent the viral invasion.  Most SARS-CoV-2  subunit vaccines  currently under development use RBD as the antigen. Moreover, the RBD domain was also used to develop SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV vaccines. 

The S protein is a potential fragment to be used as antigen in vaccine designing including various forms of the full-length S protein, RBD domain, S1 subunit, NTD, and FP.  The RBD of S protein interacts with the ACE2 receptor on host cells directly. The RBD immunization-induced specific antibodies may block this recognition and effectively prevent the viral invasion.  Most SARS-CoV-2  subunit vaccines  currently under development use RBD as the antigen.  Moreover, the RBD domain was also used to develop SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV vaccines. 

Subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2

Subunit vaccines use one or more antigens suitable for eliciting a robust immune response. In theory, the subunit vaccine is very easy and safe, but in practice, it requires a suitable adjuvant to stimulate the host immune response. Several previous attempts were partially successful with SARS-CoV. Immunization of animals with the S1 RBD domain fused with the IgG1 FC portion (RBD-FC) induced highly potent antibodies, which could bind with the RBD domain of the S1 domain, completely neutralized SARS-CoV, and inhibited SARS-CoV entry into Vero E6 cells.

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody (Alpha, Mu Variant)

9359-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody (Alpha, Mu Variant)

9359-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [9F7E4] (Alpha, Mu Variant)

PM-9371-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [9F7E4] (Alpha, Mu Variant)

PM-9371-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [1G8D11] (Alpha, Mu Variant)

PM-9373-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [1G8D11] (Alpha, Mu Variant)

PM-9373-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [7A4D12](Alpha, Mu Variant)

PM-9374-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [7A4D12](Alpha, Mu Variant)

PM-9374-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [7C11H11] (Omicron, Alpha Variant)

PM-9375-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P681H Antibody [7C11H11] (Omicron, Alpha Variant)

PM-9375-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Alpha Variant (B.1.1.7, UK) Spike P681H Peptide

9359P ProSci 0.05 mg 235.5 EUR

Mouse Anti Human SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Alpha Mu Variant P681H Monoclonal Clone 9F7E4

IMSAHUST1AMP681H9F7E4C100UG Innovative research each 826 EUR

Mouse Anti Human SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Alpha Mu Variant P681H Monoclonal Clone 1G8D11

IMSAHUST1AMP681H1G8D11C100UG Innovative research each 826 EUR

Mouse Anti Human SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Alpha Mu Variant P681H Monoclonal Clone 7A4D12

IMSAHUST1AMP681H7A4D12C100UG Innovative research each 826 EUR

Rabbit Anti Human SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Alpha Mu Variant P681H Polyclonal Affinity Purified

IRBAHUST1AMP681HAP100UG Innovative research each 553 EUR

Mouse Anti Human SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Omicron Alpha Variant P681H Monoclonal Clone 7C11H11

IMSAHUST1OAP681H7C11H11C100UG Innovative research each 826 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Mu Variant (B.1.621) Spike RBD (R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H) Recombinant Protein

21-830 ProSci 0.1 mg 714.3 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P26S Antibody (Gamma Variant)

9573-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P26S Antibody (Gamma Variant)

9573-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P681R Antibody [5H4C5] (Delta Variant)

PM-9677-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P681R Antibody [5H4C5] (Delta Variant)

PM-9677-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P681R Antibody [7E3C5] (Delta Variant)

PM-9680-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P681R Antibody [7E3C5] (Delta Variant)

PM-9680-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P26S Antibody [5G12G11] (Gamma Variant)

PM-9590-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P26S Antibody [5G12G11] (Gamma Variant)

PM-9590-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Alpha B.1.1.7 Variant)

abx620010-100g Abbexa 100 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Alpha B.1.1.7 Variant)

abx620010-200g Abbexa 200 µg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Alpha B.1.1.7 Variant)

abx620010-50g Abbexa 50 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike P681R Peptide (Delta Variant)

9673P ProSci 0.05 mg 235.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 156-157EFdel Antibody (Delta Variant)

9689-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 156-157EFdel Antibody (Delta Variant)

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SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike L452R Antibody (Delta Variant)

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SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike L452R Antibody (Delta Variant)

9463-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike P26S Peptide (Gamma Variant)

9573P ProSci 0.05 mg 235.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Alpha Variant (B.1.1.7, UK) Spike RBD Recombinant Protein

21-824 ProSci 0.1 mg 1186.8 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Alpha Variant (B.1.1.7, UK) Spike S1 (RBD) Recombinant Protein

21-808 ProSci 50 ug 619.8 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Alpha Variant (B.1.1.7, UK) Spike S1 (RBD) Recombinant Protein

21-811 ProSci 50 ug 537.9 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody

9091-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody

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Spike S1 (B.1.1.7; Alpha Variant) (SARS-CoV-2): ACE2 TR-FRET Assay Kit

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SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Full-Length Alpha Variant (B.1.1.7, UK) Spike Recombinant Protein

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SARS Antibody (CoV) (Spike)

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SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Variant (Beta, Delta, Omicron (BA.5)) Spike Trimer Antibody [P1A7]

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SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody (biotin)

9091-biotin-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody (biotin)

9091-biotin-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody [8G10A1]

PM-9365-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody [8G10A1]

PM-9365-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody [8G10B1]

PM-9366-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody [8G10B1]

PM-9366-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody [8G10C8]

PM-9367-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody [8G10C8]

PM-9367-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

Spike (B.1.621, Mu Variant) (SARS-CoV-2) Pseudotyped Lentivirus (Luc Reporter)

78618-1 BPS Bioscience 100 µl 795 EUR

Spike (B.1.621, Mu Variant) (SARS-CoV-2) Pseudotyped Lentivirus (Luc Reporter)

78618-2 BPS Bioscience 500 µl x 2 3995 EUR

OPSN00004-100UG - SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD N501Y (UK Variant Alpha) Recombinant Protein

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SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 26P Antibody [1C3H9]

PM-9583-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 26P Antibody [1C3H9]

PM-9583-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV/ SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody [1A9]

BSV-COV-AB-01 BioServUK 25 ul 283 EUR

SARS CoV/SARS CoV 2 Spike Human mAb

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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (B.1.617 Variant)

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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (B.1.617 Variant)

abx620009-200g Abbexa 200 µg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (B.1.617 Variant)

abx620009-50g Abbexa 50 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS CoV-2 IgG Spike S1 (CoV-2 IgG S1) Antibody

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SARS CoV-2 IgG Spike S1 (CoV-2 IgG S1) Antibody

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SARS CoV-2 IgM Spike S1 (CoV-2 IgM S1) Antibody

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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (JN.1 Variant)

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Spike S1 RBD (B.1.1.7; Alpha Variant), Avi-His-Tag, Biotin-Labeled (SARS-CoV-2) HiP™

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Spike S1 RBD (B.1.1.7; Alpha Variant), Avi-His-Tag, Biotin-Labeled (SARS-CoV-2) HiP™

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Spike S1 RBD (B.1.1.7; Alpha Variant), Avi-His-Tag, Biotin-Labeled (SARS-CoV-2) HiP™

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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant) Neutralizing Antibody

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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant) Neutralizing Antibody

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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

10-2868 Fitzgerald 1 mg 1000 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

10-2869 Fitzgerald 1 mg 1000 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

10-2870 Fitzgerald 1 mg 1000 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

10-2871 Fitzgerald 1 mg 1000 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

10-2906 Fitzgerald 1 mg 225 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

10-2907 Fitzgerald 1 mg 225 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody

abx229971-100g Abbexa 100 µg 325 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody

3525-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 206.18 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody

3525-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 523.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody

BSV-COV-AB-05 BioServUK 25 ul 286 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody

BSV-COV-AB-06 BioServUK 100 ul 557 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycorotein (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx169326-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 625 EUR

SARS-CoV/ SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody [1A9] 100 ul

BSV-COV-AB-02 BioServUK 100 ul 602 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

21807 SAB 100ul 1039 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

21808 SAB 100ul 1039 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

21809 SAB 100ul 1039 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

21810 SAB 100ul 1039 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

21811 SAB 100ul 1039 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

21812 SAB 100ul 1039 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3225-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 206.18 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3225-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 523.7 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3219-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 206.18 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3219-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 523.7 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3221-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 206.18 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3221-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 523.7 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3223-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 206.18 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

3223-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 523.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Beta B.1.351 Variant)

abx620004-100g Abbexa 100 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Beta B.1.351 Variant)

abx620004-200g Abbexa 200 µg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Beta B.1.351 Variant)

abx620004-50g Abbexa 50 µg 287.5 EUR

Spike S1 (B.1.618 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101126 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

Spike S1 (B.1.429 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101130 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

Spike S1 (B.1.617.2 Variant) Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101151-1 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 335 EUR

Spike S1 (B.1.617.2 Variant) Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101151-2 BPS Bioscience 1 mg 2995 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant)

abx160090-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant)

abx160090-10g Abbexa 10 µg 2800 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant)

abx160090-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant)

abx620012-100g Abbexa 100 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant)

abx620012-200g Abbexa 200 µg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant)

abx620012-50g Abbexa 50 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Gamma P.1 Variant)

abx620006-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Gamma P.1 Variant)

abx620006-5mg Abbexa 5 mg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G and P681H Mutations)

abx620079-100g Abbexa 100 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G and P681H Mutations)

abx620079-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G and P681H Mutations)

abx620079-200g Abbexa 200 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620026-100g Abbexa 100 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620026-200g Abbexa 200 µg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620026-50g Abbexa 50 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620081-100g Abbexa 100 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620081-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620081-200g Abbexa 200 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620091-100g Abbexa 100 µg 250 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620091-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 1362.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant)

abx620091-200g Abbexa 200 µg 350 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 Antibody

9119-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 Antibody

9119-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 Antibody

9123-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 Antibody

9123-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 Antibody

9083-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 Antibody

9083-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 156-157EF Antibody

9685-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 156-157EF Antibody

9685-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

Spike Trimer (S1+S2) (B.1.351 Variant, Δ242-244) (SARS-CoV-2)

101091 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Antibody

9087-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Antibody

9087-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody (HRP)

3525-HRP-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody (HRP)

3525-HRP-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike NTD Antibody

abx376529-1096tests Abbexa 10 × 96 tests Ask for price

SARS-CoV-2 Spike NTD Antibody

abx376529-596tests Abbexa 5 × 96 tests 343.75 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike NTD Antibody

abx376529-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 243.75 EUR

Mouse Anti Human SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Variant 26P Monoclonal Clone 1C3H9

IMSAHUST126P1C3H9C100UG Innovative research each 826 EUR

SARS CoV 2 Spike Mouse mAb

E2S209909 EnoGene 100ul 595 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody (biotin)

3525-biotin-002mg ProSci 0.02 mg 229.7 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody (biotin)

3525-biotin-01mg ProSci 0.1 mg 594.26 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529) Spike RBD Recombinant Protein

21-844 ProSci 0.1 mg 714.3 EUR

Spike RBD (B.1.351 Variant) Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

100978-1 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

Spike RBD (B.1.351 Variant) Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

100978-2 BPS Bioscience 1 mg 2850 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Antibody

abx229482-100g Abbexa 100 µg 1725 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Antibody

abx229483-100g Abbexa 100 µg 350 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Antibody

abx229484-100g Abbexa 100 µg 350 EUR

Spike S1 (B.1.1.7 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101001-1 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

Spike S1 (B.1.1.7 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101001-2 BPS Bioscience 1 mg 2850 EUR

Spike S1 (P.1 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

101079 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 full-length Trimeric Spike Antigen (UK Variant, 100ug)

BSV-COV-PR-65 BioServUK 100 ug 620 EUR

Spike RBD (B.1.1.7 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

100977-1 BPS Bioscience 100 µg 320 EUR

Spike RBD (B.1.1.7 Variant), Avi-His-Tag (SARS-CoV-2)

100977-2 BPS Bioscience 1 mg 2850 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta Plus B.1.617.2.1 Variant)

abx620018-100g Abbexa 100 µg 412.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta Plus B.1.617.2.1 Variant)

abx620018-200g Abbexa 200 µg 1700 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta Plus B.1.617.2.1 Variant)

abx620018-50g Abbexa 50 µg 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Variant Spike Protein RBD (E484D) Recombinant Protein

21-829 ProSci 0.1 mg 714.3 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529) Spike Trimer Recombinant Protein

21-845 ProSci 0.1 mg 714.3 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Monoclonal Antibody

A73664 EpiGentek 50 μl 516 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike B.1.617 Mutation RBD Domain (Indian Variant, 100ug)

BSV-COV-PR-96 BioServUK 100 ug 620 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Beta Variant ( B.1.351, SA) Spike RBD Recombinant Protein

21-825 ProSci 0.1 mg 1186.8 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 full-length Trimeric Spike Antigen (Delta Variant, 100ug)

BSV-COV-PR-97 BioServUK 100 ug 620 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 full-length Trimeric Spike Antigen (UK Variant, 1mg)

BSV-COV-PR-67 BioServUK 1mg 3792 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 full-length Trimeric Spike Antigen (Brazil Variant, 100ug)

BSV-COV-PR-69 BioServUK 100 ug 620 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 full-length Trimeric Spike Antigen (Indian Variant, 100ug)

BSV-COV-PR-92 BioServUK 100 ug 620 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M01F01C-100ug Absea Biotechnology 100 ug 320 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M01F01C-1mg Absea Biotechnology 1 mg 1600 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M01F01C-50ug Absea Biotechnology 50 ug 224 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M05C05C-100ug Absea Biotechnology 100 ug 320 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M05C05C-1mg Absea Biotechnology 1 mg 1600 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M05C05C-50ug Absea Biotechnology 50 ug 224 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M06A06C-100ug Absea Biotechnology 100 ug 320 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M06A06C-1mg Absea Biotechnology 1 mg 1600 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein Antibody

K06251M06A06C-50ug Absea Biotechnology 50 ug 224 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx243125-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 462.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx243126-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx226551-100g Abbexa 100 µg 225 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229977-100g Abbexa 100 µg 325 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229978-100g Abbexa 100 µg 325 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229979-100g Abbexa 100 µg 325 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229980-100g Abbexa 100 µg 425 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229981-100g Abbexa 100 µg 425 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229982-100g Abbexa 100 µg 325 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Neutralizing Antibody

abx229983-100g Abbexa 100 µg 325 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx376478-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 300 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx376479-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 300 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx376524-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 243.75 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx341095-100l Abbexa 100 µl 400 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx341095-50l Abbexa 50 µl 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx341096-100l Abbexa 100 µl 400 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx341096-50l Abbexa 50 µl 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx341097-100l Abbexa 100 µl 400 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx341097-50l Abbexa 50 µl 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx345504-01mg Abbexa 0.1 mg 250 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Antibody

abx345505-100tests Abbexa 100 tests 250 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 full-length Trimeric Spike Antigen (UK Variant, 10mg)

BSV-COV-PR-89 BioServUK 10 mg 15168 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Nucleoprotein Antibody

abx402250-100tests Abbexa 100 tests 287.5 EUR

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Nucleoprotein Antibody

abx341098-100l Abbexa 100 µl 400 EUR

So far, several companies and academics have started plans on the SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine . Almost all of them use the S protein as an antigenic target. For example, Novavax, Inc. announced to have produced multiple nanoparticle vaccine candidates based on S protein. Besides, the Pasteur Institute of Iran and Finley institute of Cuba also prepared subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. To facilitate the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, the preferred adjuvant varied widely, including the classic aluminum adjuvant that enhances the immune response by facilitating phagocytosis and slowing the diffusion of antigens from the injection site. It can efficiently stimulate the Th2 immune response upon injection. The F59, MF59 have already been used in flu vaccines in Europe and the United States. The mechanism of MF59 is to recruit immune cells to induce antigen-specific immune responses. The adjuvant system (AS) comprises a series of adjuvants improved by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), including AS01, AS02,  AS03 , and  AS04  Among them, AS01 is a  liposome  adjuvant.

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